LMS tools to help you assess your students’ progress

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Tests, quizzes, homework, lab exercises, exams. Not exactly pleasant memories from your school years (heck, some people even have nightmares with them, years after they left school), those are some of the typical tools teachers use to assess what their students have learned.

Learning, including e-learning, is an interactive process that’s based on a feedback loop between teacher and student. Teaching alone is not enough – as an educator you have to assess your students’ progress and adjust your delivery accordingly, not only in the course of a school year, but even during a single lesson session.

In this installment we’ll have a look in the tools and methods you have in your e-learning arsenal that can help you assess your students’ skills and their understanding of your courses.

In general there are two kinds of assessment of a student’s progress: qualitative and quantitative. E-learning platforms are usually more adapted to the second, but a good LMS will offer you all the tools you need to assist you in the first too.

E-learning might not usually offer the face-to-face examination of a student (though it can offer that too, in the case of video sessions), but LMS platforms offer a plethora of traditional and novel ways to measure your students’ progress, with the added benefit of automating the tedious manual grading process.

Let’s have a look at some of the tools LMS platforms offer for student assessment and their characteristics within an e-learning context.

1) Tests and quizzes

Whether in a traditional school setting or in e-learning, those two are the bread and butter of measuring student performance. They might not offer a thorough qualitative assessment of a student’s progress, but they can be very effective in exposing problematic areas in his/hers understanding (or simple lack of studying).

E-learning tests have several advantages over the traditional pen and paper tests. They can be randomized, so that each student gets his own personal version of the test (this can help prevent cheating). They can be personalized, so that each student gets a test tailored to his progress thus far. They can incorporate a variety of question types, including multimedia and interactive ones. And, last but not least, they can be graded by the LMS in a matter of seconds.

To take advantage of randomization and personalization of tests and quizzes it’s important to provide the LMS with a large enough pool of questions to draw from, that are target appropriately by skill level. For some platforms these questions can also be prepared on the fly, given a set of basic constraints (e.g such as system could produce random trigonometric questions, in which the various angles and dimensions differ).

2) Exercises

Exercises are sort of like quizzes but their primary role is to help the student familiarize himself with the material, rather than assess his command of it. To use a sports analogy, exercises are like practice, whereas tests and quizzes are like sport events and competitions.

That said, exersizes can still be graded, and can serve as an additional indicator of possible issues in the student’s understanding of the course.

Unlike quiz questions, exercises can (and should) be slightly repetitive, so that the student slowly familiarizes with the material and the techniques for answering questions and solving problems based on it.

3) Homework and projects

E-learning, while automating many aspects of the learning process, does not do away with the traditional homework, both in the form of lengthier exercises to be done at the students home and submitted later for evaluation (e.g in a word processor format for an essay, or as a computer program for a programming course) and larger, more involved, course projects that a student (or a group of students) has to work on.

The assessment and grading of homework and course projects is usually done manually, by the supervising or assistant professor(s) handling the e-learning course, but the LMS platform can still automate several aspects of the whole procedure, like automatically accepting student submissions (through file upload), cataloguing and presenting them to the teacher, providing grade entry forms and storing the students’ grades alongside those automatically calculated by the LMS.

4) One-to-one sessions

Alongside tests, quizzes and exercises, a lot of LMS platforms offer the capability of direct teacher and student interaction. This can take the form of a video or audio teleconference session, an online chat, or a combination of the above.

These kind of one-to-one sessions can be especially helpful to get a qualitative assessment of your students, to encourage and assist them with particularly problematic for them parts of the course, and, last but not least, to weed out cheaters.

5) Reports

If there was a specific advantage of e-learning systems with regards to assessing your students that traditional learning doesn’t offer, reporting would be it.

A modern LMS platform can assist the teacher in the evaluation of a student by presenting his progress in all kinds of ways, including in the form of easy to grasp plots and graphs. The latter might sound superficial, but it’s impressive how much more easier they make spotting problems in a student’s performance.

In a modern LMS platform, the grades from every test, quiz, exercise result or homework can be stored, tracked, and presented (even in real time), without all the tedious paperwork that this would entail in the traditional classroom environment.

This is perhaps the most powerful tool that an e-learning educator has in his disposal in order to asses a particular student’s progress or even the overall effectiveness of his courses.

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Escaping boredom in your online courses

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If you’re like most people, when you remember your school or university days, you’ll agree than the biggest obstacle in getting good grades was not some innate learning deficiency or a lack of skills in some particular subject but simple lack of attention.To put it bluntly most of the time you were bored out of your mind.It’s ok. We all were. Escaping boredom though is an art that we can master.

We have a tendency to blame this on the subject matter, thinking for example that Math are inherently boring, or that if we find literature tedious is because we are only interested in hard sciences. The truth is no subject is boring in itself. It’s all about how well it’s presented and how engaging the teacher is. A talented teacher armed with good course material, can get even the most disinterested student hooked.

The very first step, of course, it to acknowledge that student engagement is important, and you have to work for it, perhaps just as hard as you worked on getting your courses prepared.

A bored student is a student that not only will not try to expand his knowledge beyond the given material, but that will also easily forget what he learned. And if you’re relying on paying users for your e-learning service, a bored student is also a customer you’ll have difficulty retaining.

There are several strategies to raise student interest in your online courses. Some of those are traditional techniques that work equally well in the classroom, and others are particularly suited (or only applicable) for online courses.

It all starts with the content…

The foundation that you have to work upon is your course text. To make it interesting (or at least less boring), you’ll have to keep it short, succinct and to the point. Omit needless words; “fewer in number” just means “fewer”, “at the present” just means “now” and “as a consequence of” just means “because”. Avoid fancy words, too; why “utilize” something when you can just “use” it instead?

Read the classic reference book “The Elements of Style” by Strunk and White; it will greatly improve your copy.

Strive for clarity and brevity. It takes more skill and effort to say something in 200 words than to say it in 1000 words, but the end result will be better.

Don’t be a stickler for academic completeness if you’re not targeting an academic audience. Tailor your material to your target group. You might have a Ph.D in Physics but that doesn’t mean you have to pour all your deep academic knowledge of Quantum Dynamics to young students that haven’t even mastered the Newtonian laws of motion yet. If you want to provide some deeper material for your more advanced students, keep it separate from the main text (e.g in an extra page students can optionally open and read).

Add some funny elements to your course material. It can be from simple puns and flippant references to full blown jokes and amusing anecdotes. Don’t overdo it of course; you’re not a comedian, just an educator wanting to add a touch of humor to his lessons.

Make the content relevant to your students. Don’t use abstract or tired examples (“If I have 10 oranges, and I give 3 to John, how make do I have left?”) ― use stuff that speaks to your students everyday life and experiences. If you’re doing employee training in some enterprise, use examples that are relevant to their day-to-day work. Don’t just tell your students what they need to learn ― show them how it will benefit them.

…and it continues with the supplementary content

In e-learning the written material is just the beginning. To make stuff more interesting you have a whole arsenal of tools at your disposal; from simple illustrations to video, and even down to full blown interactive multimedia applets.

Pay the same attention to your supplementary content that you pay to your course copy. It’s not something superfluous, it’s an inseparable part of your course material.

Choose interesting, engaging illustrations and images that attract the students attention and serve to further illustrate your subject.

Take advantage of the sound and video capabilities modern LMS offer. If you’re teaching a foreign language, for example, you can spice up your lessons with popular songs in that language or some comic sketch video. Check popular social media platforms and multimedia sites like YouTube frequently. An up-to-date cultural reference such as a viral video will get your students far more engaged than some contrived made-up example.

Tests and quizzes, the dread of every student, can also be powerful tools for engagement, if you add some gamification elements to them. Organize learning games and contests and try to have the students compete for something besides their final grades. Have the students work in groups and try to inspire some well-meaning rivalry between them. It’s amazing how motivational even token awards can be.

Students don’t have to be passive consumers either. Try to get them participate in creating their own material. Let them, one by one or in small teams, have a go at being responsible for presenting a particular chapter or topic to their fellow students.

Learn from the great teachers

In online courses you usually don’t have the person-to-person communication that traditional teaching has (except if they contain video conference elements), but you’re still essentially a teacher.

Go learn from great teachers; people that are legendary for being effective and engaging educators. People like Richard Feynman, or Neil deGrasse Tyson. The internet offers a plethora of content from such people, including videos of them teaching. Study how the approach their subject, and how they organize their material, and try to see what makes their teaching interesting and fresh.

Even fictional teachers can provide inspiration, characters like John Keating, portrayed by the (sadly) late Robin Williams in the movie Dead Poet’s Society.

And, last but not least, there are volumes upon volumes of pedagogical material to draw from for techniques of effective student engagement. Study the relevant literature, or at least some high level guides on such issues.

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6 tips for making your e-learning content look current

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In this ongoing series of posts, kickstarted with our “10 Graphic Design tips for e-learning educators“, we try to provide you with the required know-how for improving the look and feel of your e-learning content. In our last post we talked about the use of images and illustration. In this one we’ll be discussing modern graphic design trends.

Some of the design tips we talked about in this series of posts are timeless, sensible advice; use the right fonts, optimize your contrast, stick to a color palette, etc. Those are essential properties of any good design.

The problem is, you can religiously follow all of these rules, and still end up with a website that, while elegant and readable, looks stale and dated. Nothing says “cheap” and “amateur” than a 90’s looking design, whereas a Web 2.0 era style signals that you are a tad behind the times in this Web 3.0 era.

To get the current “hot” look, functional design guidelines will not do. You’ll have to recognize and follow the latest web trends. If you don’t know where to start, don’t worry. Just read the following tips and you’ll be ready to nail the elusive mid-2014’s look in no time.

Study the competition

The first step of getting your design up to date is finding out what a modern design is supposed to look like. Check what your competition is doing. Study up and coming startups, since those usually incorporate new design trends faster (established businesses are more conservative and slow to change).

Check online design resources; they often have features on current design trends and how to reproduce them. They also often showcase celebrated new website that can serve as an inspiration.

Professional HTML themes are another good source of design cues, as they tend to change with the times and keep up with the latest web fashions.

Make your own choices

There’s not one and only “modern” look. At every time there is a dominant look (“Web 2.0″ back in the day, the “flat” obsession of the last couple of years, etc) and several smaller trends and directions fighting it out. Some of these will go obsolete, others will establish the future fashions.

Don’t feel obliged to follow the dominant look to a tee. Analyze it, check what works with your content, mix and match elements.

If your basic design is solid, even a small touch of current design fashions can work wonders. If it’s not, you’ve got bigger issues than how modern you look.

Don’t overdo it

Fashion is fickle. Some design elements get so much exposure that they become unfashionable (like the Web 2.0 era gradients). Others were always fads, styles that caught like wildfire, and died out just as fast.

Be conservative in what you adopt, as there is such a thing as being “too fashionable”. If you want to play it safe, follow the design of established sites like Apple, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Yahoo and the like. Those tend to adopt (and even set) the latest trends without getting overboard.

Some of the design trends can be questionable. Use your judgement. There are also lists of “tired” and “cliche” design trends in designer websites you can consult.

Be aware of trends in functional design

Modern design is not just about the looks. It’s also about the functionality, the way a website behaves.

One important such element is “responsiveness”. Modern website designs are supposed to adapt to different screen sizes and be able to cater to computer, laptop, tablet and phone users. This is not some technical consideration that’s transparent to the user; it’s something that affects how your design looks and feels (e.g a smaller screen size might necessitate hiding some parts of the page, or changing some GUI elements).

Another such trend is “one page apps”, websites with only one page, in which the content is changed dynamically. This allows for faster loading and more interactivity, but to adopt it you’ll need to rethink your design, letting go of the old notion of a “page” and embracing the modern notion of a website as an “app” (that is, your navigation should have the feel of a native desktop application).

Embrace modern web technologies

The technologies you use in your website play an important role in how current it looks and functions. There are lots of HTML5 technologies you can leverage to give your design and e-learning content a competitive edge.

Plain text and images can be adequate for some content, but they have not been cutting edge since the mid-nineties. Today there are available options for audio, video, 2D and 3D drawing, animation, synthesizing sound, etc.

SVG and Canvas HTML5 APIs can help you add up to date graphics, from plots and graphs to interactive animation. With WebGL you can incorporate 3D elements (e.g molecule models for your chemistry e-learning classes, or building models for your architecture lessons). HTML5 also has native audio and video capabilities, so you can enhance your content will full blown multimedia. There’s even stuff like MathML to help you incorporate mathematical notation in your e-learning content.

Rinse. Repeat.

A modern design has, by definition, an expiration date. There might not be a clearly defined cutoff date but sooner or later the design trends you followed will fall out of fashion, and your once cutting edge design will start looking dated. In practice, a new design has about 3-4 years until it starts needing a face-lift.

You can opt to make small updates over time to keep it current, or leave it as it is, and do a full makeover every few years. Both are valid approaches, and both have worked for well known websites (Google usually does incremental updates. Microsoft and Yahoo prefer less frequent, larger scale makeovers).

In either case, don’t rest on your laurels. Keep an eye on changing trends, and watch out for when the one’s you followed fall out of fashion. Being current is an ongoing effort.

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6 tips for using images in your e-learning material

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In this ongoing series of posts, kickstarted with our “10 Graphic Design tips for e-learning educators“, we try to provide you with the required know-how for improving the look and feel of your e-learning content. In our last post we talked about the use of color. In this one we’ll be sharing 6 tips for using images and illustrations.

1. Match your illustration to your overall aesthetic

Your e-learning theme has a certain character. Your choice of illustration should reflect and support that character. If, for example, you want to have a children friendly look for your website then use cheeky, colorful images that appeal to kids. If, on the other hand, your theme follows a minimal flat design style, use illustration that sits well with it.

Using a consistent style helps establish your content’s identity (and your branding).

2. Use pictures to tell a story

Illustration is supposed to illustrate (“serve as an example of”), not decorate.

Don’t use pictures as mere decoration or ornamental elements. Use them to tell a story and to clarify what is said in your e-learning content. Ask yourself if adding a specific picture or graphic serves this purpose ― if it doesn’t, leave it out.

That doesn’t mean your illustration should be overly technical or too detailed. Just that it should be clear and relevant to the subject matter. Don’t let decorative and aesthetic preoccupations obscure the core task of communicating a specific message and intent with your choice of imagery. Use illustration to complement your material, not to distract from it.

3. Lies, damn lies, and charts

Charts and graphs are an especially important kind of illustration, and can be essential assets in your e-learning material.

The general guidelines that hold for your image and clip art illustration also hold for charts and graphs. Use them to complement your content and tell a story, keep their style consistent with your theme’s look, etc. But there are also some guidelines that are unique to them.

Keep charts clean. Avoid extraneous elements such as needless gradients, drop shadows, 3D perspectives, etc. Charts should be clear and up to the point.

Sticking with the “up to the point” theme, avoid overloading your charts with data. If you need to show too many data points, consider using a simple table instead of a fancy bar of line chart. Avoid pie charts ― journalists and marketeers love them, but data scientists and statisticians consider them a gimmicky and inefficient type of plot.

4. The internet is not an stock image library

It might be tempting to just use random images off of the internet for your illustration needs. Don’t ― online images are usually copyrighted and using them without permission can get you into legal trouble, especially if you’re using them in a commercial setting. Then, there’s also the aesthetic aspect: using random online images will result in your content illustration lacking a common style and looking unprofessional.

If you can’t afford to hire a professional photographer or illustrator to create original artwork for your content, then the second best option is to buy stock art and pictures from a image stock service such as istockphoto.com. Stock images are (usually) of higher production standards than random web pictures, and you can buy sets of photos or drawings in the same style, something that will give your content a consistent look. An even cheaper option is clip-art and photo packs that contain thousands of photos on various topics (e.g medical, animals, computers, flowers, etc) that might be appropriate for your content.

If you have to resort to using images off of the internet, there are some places you can find quality material that is either copyright free or offered with a permissive free license. Flickr’s Creative Commons image search is a good place to look for such pictures, as is Wikimedia Commons.

5. Prepare your images appropriately

Getting the right images is just half of the story. You also have to prepare them appropriately for use in your web content.

If, for example, your website theme has specific image placeholders (as most themes do), you’ll have to check their aspect ratios and crop your images to fit in them. Too many webmasters make the mistake of distorting their images, stretching them too thin or too tall in order to make them fit. For a polished look, try to keep widths and heights consistent, and avoid having widely varying image sizes ― it looks arbitrary and unprofessional.

File size also matters. Your 4MB high quality stock photo is not suitable for web use. Use a program like Photoshop to resize and compress them, and keep your page loading times low. Use JPEG compression for photographs and detailed illustrations with subtle gradations, and PNG or GIF for images with more flat colors, such as clip art.

6. Add captions and respect usability guidelines

This one is all too easy to overlook, and all too often, it is overlooked. Take the time and effort to add proper captions to your illustration. Not just “Figure a”, but a proper short description, such as “Illustration of the human retina”.

Properly captioning your content can be tedious, but it will benefit both regular students and people with disabilities that need to use a screen reader. In fact, in a lot of countries, it’s mandatory to cater for the latter, especially if you want to qualify your e-learning material for government use.

Keep in mind that there are several kinds of captions you should fill in. Not just the visible captions below each image, but also the “alt” and “title” HTML attributes. The easy way out is to fill all of those with the same content, but semantically each serves a different purpose. The regular visible caption is meant for a short description of the image. The “alt” attribute is meant to fully describe the image to those who cannot see it (e.g people using a screen reader). Finally, the “title” attribute is meant to contain the title for the image.

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A splash of color for your e-learning content

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In this ongoing series of posts, kickstarted with our “10 Graphic Design tips for e-learning educators”, we try to provide you with the required know-how for improving the look and feel of your e-learning content. In our last post we talked about typography ― the use of fonts and typesetting for optimal readability. In this post, we’ll be taking a look at color.

Seemingly easy, color for your e-learning content can be surprisingly challenging for web masters to get right, especially if they have had no training in graphic design. It’s something that everybody feels qualified to have an opinion on (in graphic designer circles, few thins are more feared than the client imposing his awful color choices to the designer he hired), but that few have a natural eye for.

Don’t be afraid though. There are certain practical rules and guidelines you can follow (and even the whole science of “color theory” if you want to delve deeper into the subject) that can get you going in no time.

Colors are meant to be combined

No color is an island. You might believe you have found the perfect hue to use in your e-learning site, but you have to think of how it fits with the rest of the colors you’ll use.

Don’t think about individual colors. Think about your palette ― a set of colors that fits well together and is used throughout your content. Here’s were some basic color theory can be helpful, as there are several schemes for picking colors that look nice next to each other (e.g “complementary colors”).

If that all sound Greek to you, there are tools, like Adobe’s online service Kuler, that can automate the whole process, letting you pick a few colors you “must have” and figuring out colors that fit with them for you.

After you’ve developed your palette, stick to it. A small palette creates a stronger visual identity than a larger one. Often, a single color (like IBM’s blue or Coca Cola’s red) can define your whole branding. As for black and white, they are neutral, and you can use them with any other color.

Color affects contrast

As we discussed in the post about typography, contrast is a very important factor for readability. And contrast is produced by the difference in luminance and hue between two colors (or shades of the same color). For example it’s hard to discern a dark blue figure on a dark green background, or yellow text on an orange background.

You want to have a strong contrast between the background and your text color, especially for your longer copy. You can relax that a little for headlines and call-outs, since those are usually set in larger font sizes which makes them easier to read in the first place.

You don’t really have to be creative with your text’s color. In fact it’s better if you don’t. Black text on white background has been used for centuries and works great for print. For the web, consider making the background a little darker (an extremely light shade of gray will do), because an all white page can be too intense to read on a computer screen due to the backlight.

Color conveys information

Colors offer a great way to quickly relay information.

We all know to associate certain colors with certain messages (like the global use of red to mean “warning” or “danger”). That’s color coding; a technique for displaying information by using different colors.

You are not constrained by already defined color associations such as these. You can define your own color coding that applies within your e-learning content. E.g you can mark exercises with blue, important notes with yellow, etc. Or you can use different colors to mark different topics or sections.

That said, you also have to consider color-blind users. Either select colors that they can also distinguish (there are tools that show you how a color-blind person sees a website) or use color-coding as a supplementary way to convey information (e.g, if you mark all beginner exercises with some blue heading, also add a textual label marking them as such).

Color sets the mood

Colors are not just for decoration. They are a powerful way to set the mood and tone of your content.

Especially important in your choice of palette is your target audience. Ever noticed how corporate sites usually have a blue theme, sites for women have pink or pastel hues, sites about the environment or organic food use shades of green or sites for kids use vibrant primary colors? That’s color psychology at work.

Psychologic (and marketing) research has come up with several ways different colors affects our emotions (e.g red conveys excitement, blue conveys competence, etc. Try to use the appropriate colors for your theme and target audience. There are guides you can find online to help you with that, but a quick survey on content and sites with target audiences similar to yours can also help.

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Typography for e-learning content design

typography-is-funIn our last post, “10 Graphic Design tips for e-learning educators”, we provided a few essential guidelines for improving the look and feel of your e-learning content.
Such a list, of course, can only offer a basic overview of the numerous things an educator needs to know when designing his e-learning courses. Don’t worry, though, because we’re here to expand on each of those guidelines and get into specifics, starting with the black art of fonts and typography. 

It cannot be be emphasized enough: graphic design is mostly typography. Good typography ― which involves choice of fonts, font-sizes, line length, columns etc, can lift even the most mediocre content. Bad typography can render even the best e-learning material unreadable.
Fortunately, while typography is something that can take years to fully master, you can get eighty-percent of the way there by following a few simple rules:

Choose your fonts wisely (or stick to the standards)

In an era when OSes come with 100s of fonts and modern web browsers offer us the ability to serve our users any font we like among tens of thousands, it’s tempting to pick up exotic looking fonts, or render your content in fancy web-fonts. Don’t. Unless you know what you’re doing, it’s better to stick with the standard, boring but reliable, fonts available in all platforms (Arial, Verdana, Times, Georgia, etc).
Most freely available web-fonts are of low typographic quality (if not downright tacky). Even nicely done web-fonts often look bad in older versions of Windows or older browsers, whereas fonts bundled with Windows and OS X have been finely tuned by  professionals to look good on modern LCD displays. As an added bonus, built-in fonts are already installed on your users’ computers, so, unlike web fonts, they load immediately.

The three-fonts-max rule

A common mistake many webmasters make is using too many fonts. This looks amateurish. Keep your font-count low, using no more than two or three fonts (e.g one for your titles and one for your copy).
Keep in mind that not all fonts are created equal. Some are designed for readability and are great for long text, while others are more ornamental or fancy and should be reserved for titles and headings. As a general rule, sans-serif fonts (such as Arial, Verdana, Calibri, Helvetica, etc) have been shown to make it easier to read long passages of text on a computer display with limited resolution (that is all, except the latest modern hi-DPI monitors).
The warning against using too many different fonts also holds for using too many different font sizes and/or weights. Stick with fewer, well thought-out font-sizes, preferably based on the hierarchical structure of your content (large font size for the titles, slightly smaller for your subtitles, medium for your content, small for footnotes and asides, etc).

Use fonts to set the mood

You should not base your font choices merely on whether you like a particular font itself. It’s more important that the font sits well with your content. 
Fonts are not neutral. Depending on their design they can evoke different feelings, convey different notions (professionalism, playfulness, seriousness, friendliness, etc) and even allude to certain historical periods (e.g a gothic or modernist font).
With the above in mind, try to pick an font appropriate for your target audience and content. An e-learning website aimed at young children, for example, can employ playful fonts (especially for the titles) to pique the kids’ interest. The same choice would obviously look unprofessional on an elearning-site on economics or law.

Make it readable

Typography is an art, or rather, an applied art. There are no “laws” set in stone, but guidelines and rules of thumb do exist, for both print and computer typography.
Contrast, for starters, is especially important. As a computer display is an active source of light (in other words, there’s a lamp behind it), too much contrast can be fatiguing for the eyes. On the other hand, too low contrast is equally, if not more, fatiguing. Opt for a good, strong contrast, but avoid extremes (like 100% white on black, or 100% black on white).
Regarding size, the latest consensus among graphic designers is for larger fonts – 16px and up. Those are appropriately sized for today’s higher resolution displays. Much larger or much smaller fonts both hinder readability.
As a rule of thumb, a line of text should have around 75 characters. Longer lines make reading more difficult. You should use left-aligned text, as modern browsers still lack the ability to properly fully justify a paragraph the way a typographer would.
Let your text breath. Break it in paragraphs, and leave some space after each paragraph. Avoid long running passages without paragraph breaks, as those make it difficult for the reader to track his position in the text (especially when scrolling in involved).
Line height, the distance between lines of text, is another  important aspect for great readability. The standard in most browsers is too small. Set a line height of 1.4em or more, depending on your font and overall design.

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Three Steps to Content Chunking in eLearning. #infografía by @commlabindia Infographic

Hoy traemos a este espacio de CommLab India .. esta infografía Three Steps to Content Chunking in eLearning – An INFOGRAPHIC by Sravanthi Reddy G... 
que nos introduce así:
"Introducing too much content at one go, may not meet the learning objectives, as it overloads the learner’s mind. Experimental psychologist George Miller found that “The Magic Number 7, plus or minus 2? Describes the number of ideas, facts, or issues that an average individual can hold in his working memory is 7 + 2. This is called the Rule of 7″.

As an Instructional Designer, you must understand the importance of chunking the content, in designing a customized eLearning course. For example, you must know where to stop for a particular lesson, how much of the content should be shown on-screen, and what information to be put in the audio?..."
Read More: blog.commlabindia.com/elearning/steps-content-chunking
Three Steps to Content Chunking in eLearning – An INFOGRAPHIC

(leer más...) Fuente: [commlabindia ]